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Kristine Black-Hawkins


Emeritus Professor of Inclusive Education

E-mail Address


(+44) 01223 767660


  • BA (Hons) English University of Lancaster 
  • PGCE Cambridge Institute of Education 
  • MA Education University of East Anglia 
  • PhD The Open University.

Membership of Professional Bodies/Associations

  • Editorial Board of Cambridge Journal of Education
  • Editorial Board of Impact, the journal of the Chartered College of Teachers
  • Editorial Advisory Board for NASEN's academic journals (Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs; British Journal of Special Education; Support for Learning)
  • British Educational Research Association (BERA)
  • European Educational Research Association (EERA)

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Kristine Black-Hawkins is Emeritus Professor of Inclusive Education at the Faculty of Education. She taught in schools and worked for local government, then joined the Open University, before coming to Cambridge. Her teaching and research interests are in the area of inclusive and special education and, in particular, how schools and classrooms as communities can raise the achievements of all learners whilst safeguarding the inclusion of those who are more vulnerable to processes of exclusion. She researches the nature of inclusive pedagogical strategies that support high levels of achievement for diverse groups of students, within changing policy contexts. An important aspect of this is the generation of innovative research approaches and tools to underpin the work.

She was a member of the research team that produced The Index for Inclusion (funded by the DfES and distributed to all schools in England and Wales; subsequently translated for use in over twenty countries, including Brazil, Canada, India, Norway, Portugal, Romania and South Africa). As part of this project she worked with educationalists and NGOs to produce support materials for use in different national settings (funded by UNESCO).

Kristine convened the Inclusive Education Special Interest Group for the British Educational Research Association (BERA) from 2011-16. She is a member of the Editorial Advisory Board for the three academic journals published through NASEN (National Association of Special Educational Needs). She is also on the editorial board of the Cambridge Journal of Education and Impact, the journal of the Chartered College of Teachers. She regularly reviews for journals, publishers, research bodies and conferences. In 2015 Kristine was awarded a Visiting Cambridge Fellowship at the University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand. She is regularly invited to present her work internationally: most recently, to the University of Bielefeld, Germany; Ministry of Education, Wellington, the University of Otago, Dunedin and the University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand; the Victoria Institute, Melbourne, Australia; Ministry of Education, Cyprus; University of Cologne, Germany.

Academic Area/Links

• PELS (Psychology, Education and Learning Studies) Research Group
• Wellbeing and Inclusion Special Interest Group

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Research Topics

  • Achievement and Inclusion in Classrooms
  • HOPE (Health Outcomes for young People throughout Education)
  • Children's and teachers’ perspectives on ‘being different’, ‘being the same’, and ‘belonging’ in the primary classroom
  • Understanding inclusive classroom strategies and practices for all learners

Prospective doctoral applications: 

Please note, as I have now retired I am not accepting any doctoral students.

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Course Involvement

  • None, following retirement.

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Selected Publications

Black-Hawkins, K. & Grinham-Smith, A. (Editors) (2023) Expanding Possibilities for Inclusive Learning, Abingdon: Routledge. (

Black-Hawkins, K., Maguire, L. & Kershner, R. (2021) Developing inclusive classroom communities: what matters to children? Education 3-13,

Pollard, A., Black-Hawkins, K., Cliff-Hodges, G., Dudley, P., James, M., Linklater, H., Swaffield, S., Swann, M., Turner, F., Warwick, P., Winterbottom, M. & Wolpert, M.A. (2019) Reflective Teaching (5th Edn). London: Bloomsbury.

Black-Hawkins, K. (2017) Understanding inclusive pedagogy: Learning with and from teachers, In V. Plows and B. Whitburn (Eds) Inclusive Education: Making Sense of Everyday Practice, Rotterdam: Sense Publishers (pp. 13-30).

Florian, L., Black-Hawkins, K. and Rouse, M. (2017) Achievement and Inclusion in Schools (2nd edition), London: Routledge.

Black-Hawkins, K. (2014) Editor of special issue, 'What can inclusive education learn from philosophy?’ Cambridge Journal of Education, 44, 4, 445-450, DOI:10.1080/0305764X.2014.960258.

Beaton, M. C. and Black-Hawkins, K. (2014) Editor of special issue, 'Changing legislation on inclusive and special education: perspectives across the four nations of the UK'. British Journal of Special Education, 41: 340–343, DOI: 10.1111/1467-8578.12084.

Black-Hawkins, K. and Amrhein, B. (2014) Valuing student teachers' perspectives: researching inclusively in inclusive education? International Journal of Research and Method in Education DOI: 10.1080/1743727X.2014.886684

Black-Hawkins, K. (2014) Researching inclusive classroom practices: the Framework for Participation, In L. Florian (Ed.) (2014) The Sage Handbook of Special Education, (2nd Edn) London: Sage.

Black-Hawkins, K. (2013) The Framework for Participation: a research tool for exploring the relationship between achievement and inclusion in schools, Revista Derecho y Humanidades (Journal of Law and Humanities, University of Chile), 21, 85-110.

Black-Hawkins, K. (2012)  Developing inclusive classroom practices: what guidance do commercially published texts offer teachers?, European Journal of Special Needs Education, 27, 4 499-516. DOI:10.1080/08856257.2012.720412

Black-Hawkins, K. and Florian, L. (2012) Teachers' craft knowledge of their inclusive practice, Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 18, 5, 567-584. DOI:10.1080/13540602.2012.709732.

Florian, L. and Black-Hawkins, K. (2011) Exploring Inclusive Pedagogy, British Educational Research Journal, 37, 5, 813-828, [Online] DOI: 10.1080/01411926.2010.501096

Florian, L., Rouse, M. & Black-Hawkins, K. (2011). 'Researching achievement and inclusion to improve the educational experiences and outcomes of all learners'. Spanish Education Review, Aula, 17, 57-72.

Black-Hawkins, K. (2010) The Framework for Participation: a research tool for exploring the relationship between achievement and inclusion in schools, International Journal of Research & Method in Education, 33: 1, 21-40   DOI: org/10.1080/17437271003597907

Black Hawkins, K., Florian, L. and Rouse, M. (2007) Achievement and Inclusion in Schools, London: Routledge. (Winner of the 2008 NASEN/TES academic book of the year.) 

McLaughlin, C., Black-Hawkins, K. and McIntyre, D. (2007) Networking Practitioner Research. London, Routledge.

McLaughlin, C. and Black-Hawkins, K. (2007) Partnerships for Educational Knowledge Creation - Distinctions, Dilemmas and Challenges, The Curriculum Journal, Vol. 18, No 3, pp.327-341 available on-line

McLaughlin, C., Black-Hawkins, K., Brindley, S., McIntyre, D. and Taber, K. (2006) Researching Schools: Stories from a Partnership for Educational Research, London: Routledge Falmer.

Florian, L., Rouse, M., Black-Hawkins, K. and Jull, S. (2004) What can national data sets tell us about inclusion and pupil achievement? British Journal of Special Education, 31, 3, 115-121. available on-line

McLaughlin, C. and Black-Hawkins, K. (2004) A schools-university research partnership: understandings, models and complexities, Journal of In-service Education, 30, 2, 265. available on-line

Booth, T. and Black-Hawkins, K. (2001) Developing Learning and Participation in Countries of the South: The Role of an Index for Inclusion, Paris: UNESCO. 

Booth, T., Ainscow, M., Black-Hawkins, K., Vaughan, M. and Shaw, L. (2000) The Index for Inclusion: Developing Learning and Participation in Schools, Bristol: CSIE.


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